Elaboration et caractérisation de ciments géopolymères à base de scories volcaniques

Tchakouté Kouamo, Hervé (2013) Elaboration et caractérisation de ciments géopolymères à base de scories volcaniques. PhD thesis, Université de Yaoundé I.

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    Abstract

    Two types of volcanic ashes referenced as ZD (volcanic ashes from Djoungo) and ZG (volcanic ashes from Galim) were collected from two Cameroonian localities. They were characterized (chemical and mineralogical compositions, amorphous phase content, particle size distribution and specific surface area) and used as raw materials for the synthesis of geopolymer cements at ambient temperature of laboratory (24 ± 3 °C). The synthesized products were characterized by determining their setting time, linear shrinkage and compressive strength, X-ray Diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The mineralogical composition, the amorphous phase content, the particle size distribution, the specific surface area of the volcanic ashes as well as the mass ratio of the alkaline solution (sodium silicate / sodium hydroxide) were the main parameters which influenced the synthesis of geopolymers with interesting characteristics at ambient temperature (24 ± 3 °C). The volcanic ashes (ZD) whose mineralogical composition contained anhydrite, low amorphous phase content and low specific surface area led to long setting times. Moreover, its products swelled and presented cracks due to the formation of ettringite and these resulted in low compressive strengths (7 to 19 MPa). The volcanic ashes (ZG) containing high amounts of amorphous phase and high specific surface area led geopolymers with setting times between 490 and 180 minutes and compressive strength between 7 and 50 MPa at ambient temperature of laboratory. The properties of geopolymers were improved when elaborated with a mixture of volcanic ashes and metakaolin (ZD–MK and ZG–MK). For geopolymers obtained from ZD–MK, the setting time was between 500 and 160 minutes while it was between 220 and 125 minutes for geopolymers obtained from ZG–MK. The compressive strength greatly increased between 23 and 68 MPa and 39 and 64 MPa for geopolymers obtained from ZG –MK and ZD–MK respectively. A comparative study of the properties of mixtures of metakaolin–alumina and volcanic ash–alumina based geopolymers shows that metakaolin is a good source of Al2O3 and SiO2 and which highly reactive with alkaline solution and produces geopolymers with better characteristics compared to volcanic ash based–geopolymer. The properties of volcanic ash–based geopolymer were also improved when amorphous alumina was incorporated into the volcanic ash. This additive is used to compensate the deficiencies in Al2O3 content in the volcanic ash. Compare to when volcanic ash is used alone 20 to 40 % incorporation of this additive corresponded to increases of the compressive strength by 18.1 % for metakaolin-alumina based-geopolymers and by 32.4 % for volcanic ash-based geopolymers.

    Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
    Uncontrolled Keywords: Scories volcaniques, metakaolin, alumine amorphe, géopolymères, température ambiante, résistance à la compression.
    Subjects: 500 Natural sciences and mathematics > 540 Chemistry and allied sciences
    Divisions: Africa > Cameroon > Université de Yaoundé 1 (UY1) > Faculté des Sciences
    Depositing User: Docteur Herve Tchakoute Kouamo
    Date Deposited: 28 Jun 2013 23:06
    Last Modified: 28 Jun 2013 23:06
    URI: http://eprints.campuce.org/id/eprint/78

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